Early Colonization- great site with actual documents.:
The Northwest Passage- The French and Native Americans
The British- Queen Elizabeth and Virginia Companies
Roanoke: 1585 Sir Walter Raleigh, John White became the leader. Upon return with more settlers and supplies, the settlement had been abandoned. It is unknown whether it was Indian attacks, death or they moved on elsewhere. (1590). Theories:
(Establishment of the 13 colonies)
Jamestown: 1607 established by John Smith with the Virginia Company in what is now known as Virginia.
Pilgrims: 1620 arrival to New World. The Mayflower Compact- first government document of Plymouth
(1624 Dutch settling along Hudson River)
1630- Puritans arrive in Massachusetts Bay colony- leader John Winthrop
1632- Land granted to Lord Baltimore for the settlement of Maryland.
1643- United Colonies of New England established (Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven)
1670- English settlement in Carolina
1681- William Penn establish Pennsylvania
1682- Louisiana claimed by La Salle (after exploring the Mississippi River and reaching Gulf of Mexico.Established in 1699.
1705 Virginia established slave code (slaves were real estate)
1732 Georgia was founded
1733 Molasses Act- high tax on rum, molasses and sugar produced in the West Indies for sale in the colonies.
1754- 1763 French and Indian War- Fur traders and Virginia planters were interested in exploiting and developing the Ohio River valley region. The French, determined to secure the territory against encroaching British and American traders and land speculators, built a chain of forts along Pennsylvania’s Allegheny River. The British ministry ordered colonial governors to repel the French advance, “by force” if necessary. The war came to an official end in 1763, with the Peace of Paris. The treaty gave Britain all French land in Canada except for two fishing islands south of Newfoundland. To the south, the treaty gave Britain all of France’s holdings east of the Mississippi River, which Spain received from France before ceding Florida to Britain.
1763- Peace of Paris (Treaty of Paris)- End of French and Indian war. French ceded to Canada and gave land east of Mississippi to Britain.
The American Revolution
1763- Proclamation of 1763- King George ordered no colonization westward
1764- Sugar Act- It passed the Sugar Act, a law that imposed duties on foreign wines, coffee, textiles, and indigo imported into the colonies, and that also expanded the customs service. Britain also required colonial vessels to fill out papers detailing their cargo and destination. The Royal Navy patrolled the coast to search for smugglers, who were tried in special courts without a jury.
1765- The Stamp Act- Parliament passed the Stamp Act, which imposed a tax on all newspapers, legal documents, playing cards, dice, almanacs, and pamphlets. The act highlighted the issue of taxation without representation
1767- Townshend Act- taxed imports of glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea in the colonies. Also these taxes aided the salaries of colonial governors and judges, preventing colonial legislatures from exercising the power of the purse over those officials.
1770- Boston Massacre- British troops had arrived in Boston to suppress the tension and feelings of colonists against British. A group of colonists rallied outside of government building in Boston, British troops fired into the crowd killing 3 patriots.
1773- Tea Act- Parliament implemented act authorizing over taxation to tea merchants profits directly going to East India Company.
December 1773- Colonist dressed as Native Americans raided British cargo ship and threw all the tea into Boston Harbor (342 chests of tea)
1774- Minutemen established- colonial militia
1774- Intolerable Acts- letter sent to the King demanding unfair treatment and taxation of the colonist.
September 1774 First Continental Congress meet in Philadelphia, representatives from all colonies (except Georgia) present to discuss intolerable acts.
1775- Midnight Ride of Paul Revere- Rode to warn that the British were coming!
* Colonists in open rebellion